Copy this code into fixed_loops.c.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <mpi.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv)
    int i, rank, nprocs, count, start, stop, nloops, total_nloops;

    MPI_Init(&argc, &argv);

    // get the number of processes, and the id of this process
    MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &rank);
    MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &nprocs);

    // we want to perform 1000 iterations in total. Work out the 
    // number of iterations to perform per process...
    count = 1000 / nprocs;

    // we use the rank of this process to work out which
    // iterations to perform.
    start = rank * count;
    stop = start + count;

    // now perform the loop
    nloops = 0;

    for (i=start; i<stop; ++i)

    printf("Process %d performed %d iterations of the loop.\n",
           rank, nloops);

    if (rank != 0)
        // if we are not the master process (rank 0) then we need to
        // tell that process how many iterations we performed
        MPI_Send( &nloops, 1, MPI_INT, 0, 0, MPI_COMM_WORLD );
        // if we are the master process, then we need to wait to be
        // told how many iterations were performed by each other
        // process
        total_nloops = nloops;

        for (i=1; i<nprocs; ++i)
            MPI_Recv( &nloops, 1, MPI_INT, i, 0, MPI_COMM_WORLD, 0 );

            total_nloops += nloops;

        // ok - are there any more loops to run?
        nloops = 0;

        for (i=total_nloops; i<1000; ++i)

        printf("Process 0 performed the remaining %d iterations of the loop\n",


    return 0;

This example uses two new functions;

It is possible to send messages of other data types, e.g.

Just replace MPI_INT in MPI_Send and MPI_Recv with the correct data type for the message.

The full list of MPI data types is given here.

Note that it is also possible for you to define your own data types, although this is beyond the scope of this basic introductory course.

In this example, MPI_Send is used to send the number of completed loops from each worker process (processes with ranks 1 to N-1) to the master process (process with rank 0). MPI_Recv is called N-1 times on the master process to receive the N-1 messages sent by the worker processes.

You can compile this example using;

mpicc fixed_loops.c -o fixed_loops

This will produce the executable fixed_loops.

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