# Part 1: Reduction

We have seen how to map a function across a list of data, with the return value of each function call placed into a list of results. For example, you summed together two lists of numbers using `map`

using code such as this. Start `ipython`

and type

```
def add(x, y):
"""Function to return the sum of x and y"""
return x + y
= [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
b
= map(add, a, b)
result
print(list(result))
```

This returns a list of results. However, what if we want to sum every value in the returned list of results to form a single value? We could write the code by hand, e.g. type

```
= 0
total
= map(add, a, b)
result
for i in result:
+= i
total
print("Total = %s" % total)
```

This process of summing a list of numbers into a total is an example of “reduction”. The list of numbers has been reduced into a total by adding each value onto a running total. Reduction is the complement to mapping, and as such, Python has a `reduce`

function.

The reduce function is available from the standard `functools`

module, e.g. type into ipython

```
from functools import reduce
= map(add, a, b)
result
= reduce(add, result)
total
print(total)
```

You should see that `reduce`

has returned the result `55`

.

`reduce`

takes two required arguments and one additional, optional argument:

The reduction function used to reduce a pair of arguments to a single result, e.g.

`add`

takes two arguments and returns the sum of those arguments. This can be any function that accepts two arguments and returns a single result.The list of values to be reduced.

An (optional) initial value that is used as the first value for the reduction.

For example, type

```
= [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a
= reduce(add, a, 10)
total
print(total)
```

You should see that the total is `25`

. Why do you think the answer is 25?

Python’s `reduce`

applies the reduction function (in this case `add`

) cumulatively from left to right along the items of a list. If an initial value is supplied then this is used as the first value. Otherwise, the first value is the result of the reduction function applied to the first two items in the list. In the above case, `reduce`

performed;

- total = 10
- total = add(total, 1)
- total = add(total, 2)
- total = add(total, 3)
- total = add(total, 4)
- total = add(total, 5)

The result is thus 25, i.e. `(((((10+1)+2)+3)+4)+5)`

.

The reduction function can be any function that accepts two arguments and returns a single value. For example, let’s now use `reduce`

to calculate the product of all of the values in the list. To do this, we need to create a new function that will take in two arguments and return their product. Type into ipython;

```
def multiply(x, y):
"""Return the product of the two arguments"""
return x*y
= reduce(multiply, a)
total
print(total)
```

You should see that the product is `120`

. Is this what you expected? In this case, `reduce`

performed;

- total = multiply(1, 2)
- total = multiply(total, 3)
- total = multiply(total, 4)
- total = multiply(total, 5)

i.e. it set `total`

equal to `((((1×2)×3)×4)×5) = 120`

.

Note that the reduction function is not limited to just numbers. You can write a reduction function to reduce any types of object together. For example, we could use reduce to join together some strings. Type into ipython;

```
def join_strings(x, y):
return "%s %s" % (x,y)
= ["cat", "dog", "mouse", "fish"]
a
= reduce(join_strings, a)
result
print(result)
```

You should see the result `cat dog mouse fish`

.

## Exercise

Modify your `countlines.py`

script so that, in addition to printing out the total number of lines in each Shakespeare play, it also uses `reduce`

to print out the total number of lines in all Shakespeare plays.

If you get stuck or want some inspiration, a possible answer is given here.